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Uswag Journal:Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Print - ISSN : 2984-8946; Web - ISSN: 2984-8954

The Journal's short name " Uswag Journal" which literally means development and/or progress in the field of research is the official research journal of Catanduanes State University. The journal publishes scientific articles which have the potential to grow and evolve into significant advancement on various disciplines.

Uswag Journal:

Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

I - Description

The Journal's short name "Uswag Journal" which literally means development and/or progress in the field of research is the official research journal of Catanduanes State University. The journal publishes scientific articles which have the potential to grow and evolve into significant advancement on various disciplines.

Thus, the Uswag Journal: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is committed to advancing knowledge across a wide range of disciplines by publishing high-quality and peer-reviewed research articles, reviews and commentaries. The journal entries are primarily scholarly outputs of the faculty researchers and staff from the different colleges and units of the institution.

The journal welcomes submission from all areas of science and social sciences, and as well as interdisciplinary research that crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries. The journal is interested in research, development and innovation that uses novel approaches, techniques and methods from various disciplines towards local, national and global progress and development. The journal is reviewed by internal and external researchers and is published semi-annually.

Volume 1 Number 2, 2023

Preliminary Pages

Performance of Different Foundation Rice Varieties at Panganiban, Catanduanes

Eduardo D. Peña

A field experiment was conducted which consisted of four (4) foundation rice varieties as treatments replicated four (4) times in an experimental lot measuring 30 by 15 m using the randomized complete block design (RCBD) to evaluate the performance of the different foundation rice varieties based on the agro-morphological characteristics at Panganiban, Catanduanes during the 2020/2021 cropping season. Results revealed that the different foundation rice seed varieties were significantly different in terms of their agro-morphological performance in response to the prevailing weather pattern during the cropping season. Foundation rice seed variety NSIC Rc 242 produced the highest yield, tallest plant height, few missing hills, and the most significant number of grains per panicle. Variety NSIC Rc 400 gave the most significant number of tillers and the longest panicle. The highest number of productive tillers was noted on NSIC Rc 15. The NSIC Rc 438 yielded the highest percentage of filled grains and the earliest maturity. Analysis of variance for the different agro-morphological characteristics indicated significant mean differences in plant height (F=6.59 and p<0.05), tillering capacity (F=19.68 and p<0.05), length of panicle (F=18.70 and p<0.05), number of grains/panicle (F=6.71 and p<0.05), and percentage of filled grains (F=10.35 and p<0.05). Grain yield, missing hills per plot, and the number of productive tillers were similar among treatments. NSIC Rc 242, being the highest yielder, tallest height, few missing hills, and greatest number of grains per panicle is highly recommended for adoption at Panganiban, Catanduanes prevailing weather pattern.

Cite this article:
Peña, E.P. (2023). Performance of Different Foundation Rice Varieties at Panganiban, Catanduanes. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2), 6–12.

Wikang Filipino sa Panahon ng Krisis: Ang Leksikograpiya ng mga Terminolohiyang Kaugnay ng COVID-19 sa Pilipinas

Jovert R. Balunsay and Susan M. Tindugan

Patuloy pa ring nadarama ng mundo ang naging epekto nang nagdaang pandemyang COVID-19. Halos lahat ng sektor ng lipunan ay apektado nito. Umabot sa milyon-milyong tao ang nagkasakit, nahawahan, at namatay. Marami na ring negosyo ang nagsara, nagbukas, at muling nalugi dahil sa mga patakarang pangkapaligiran. Sa kabila ng lahat ng ito, sadyang marami pa rin ang may salat na kaalaman sa pandemya, kung paano ito maiiwasan, at kung paano ito mapaglalabanan. Sa papel na ito, sinikap tuklasin ng mga mananaliksik ang mga terminolohiyang umusbong, ginamit, kaugnay, at maididikit sa pandemya at binigyan ito ng kahulugan sa wikang Filipino. Sa ganitong paraan, naniniwala ang mga mananaliksik na mas mailalapit sa masa ang mga leksiyong turo ng pandemya. Batay sa matiim na pangangalap ng datos, nalikom ang 940 mga pananalita na mula sa 20 magkakaibang dominyo mula sa medisina, agham, hanggang sa edukasyon, sosyolohiya, musika, at marami pang iba. Bawat salita ay sinuri ang kinabibilangang bahagi ng panalita at paraan ng pagkakabuo na humantong sa mga may-akda upang mabuo ang COVIDIKSIYONARYO na siyang awtput ng pag-aaral na ito.

Cite this article:
Balunsay, J.R., & Tindugan, S.M. (2023). Wikang Filipino sa panahon ng krisis: Ang leksikograpiya ng mga terminolohiyang kaugnay ng COVID-19 sa Pilipinas. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2), 13-35.

Proactive Resilience: How Catandunganons Prepare to Face Up a Super Typhoon’s Fury

Ramon Felipe A. Sarmiento, Joel Jordan, Ma. Nena T. Vital and Maricel S. Cariaso

Using a combination of research methods, this study aimed to 1) describe the lived experience of the survivors of super typhoon Rolly (with international name “Goni”) in Catanduanes in terms of their preparations; 2) reconstruct their worldview regarding typhoons and preparation practices in dealing with them; and 3) identify policy implications as indicated by the lived experiences. Specifically, this investigation used case-study approach to capture the lived experiences and network analysis to describe the refuge-seeking behavior. Findings indicate that the survivors faced typhoon Rolly according to what may be called a “culture of resiliency” cultivated through many previous experiences of typhoons. It is comprising of 1) a worldview that takes typhoons as integral part of reality that constantly shape their lives, an attitude of acceptance and facing up to its challenges; and 2) a set of proven practices in mitigating its impact, including the use of social capital of informal network for refuge-seeking and accessing resources for basic necessities for survival and building back to normalcy. A salient character of the Catandunganons’ enterprise of disaster mitigation is its social class dimension: dealing with typhoons is differentiated according to the divide between the “haves” and the “have-nots.” Findings too imply on policy formation by the institutionalized stakeholders such as the local government. Basically, it is suggested that planning for disaster mitigating must be based on the assumption that the people have indigenous knowledge and resources in effective dealing with the impact of typhoons. Among other recommendations, it is specifically desirable to (1) make “ayuda” to be more proactive to include the giving out of goods for anticipatory buttressing of houses and other preparatory measures; (2) create building technologies that also target those of modest means.

Cite this article:
Sarmiento, R.F.A., Jordan, J., Vital, M.N.T., & Cariaso, M.S. (2023). Proactive resilience: How Catandunganons prepare to face up a Super Typhoon’s fury. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2), 36-48.

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of the Coastal Communities in Southern Catanduanes Island, Philippines

Ricardo V. Arcilla Jr. and Ma. Cecilia T. Arcilla

This paper aims to provide data about the sources of vulnerability of coastal communities in Southern Catanduanes Island, particularly in its capital town Virac, especially to immediate, acute impacts of climate change (e.g., storm surge, ocean warming, etc.). A participatory assessment of the vulnerability of coastal communities was conducted using the Integrated Coastal Sensitivity, Exposure and Adaptive Capacity for Climate Change (I-C-Sea Change) tool. This tool was used to gather data based on a series of scoring rubrics intended to provide scores for sensitivity and lack of adaptive capacity particularly for coastal habitats like corals, seagrass and mangroves along with fisheries and coastal integrity. Scores for the sensitivity and LAC were then weighed against a threat or exposure to climate-related impacts based on existing projections. A total of 20 coastal communities/barangays were covered. Results showed that in terms of sensitivity, 18 out of 20 coastal communities scored moderate while two (2) out of 20 coastal communities scored low. Moderate scores are attributable to several factors like the condition of the coastal habitats, dependence on fisheries and coastal integrity. The low scores for the two coastal communities of Palnab del Sur and Palnab del Norte is associated with the good condition of its corals, seagrass and mangroves as well as the low dependence on fishery and the present condition of the coastline. In terms of LAC scores, all coastal communities scored moderate. Although other areas reported the absence of key coastal habitats like mangroves or seagrass, it is compensated by other indicators of adaptive capacity like human activity (no land conversion and deviation from approved CLUP), education, as well as the presence of a marine protected area/fish sanctuary in four (4) of the 20 barangays namely Magnesia del Sur, Magnesia del Norte, Marilima and Batag. Exposure score is moderate for sea surface temperature and wave exposure index, and high for sea surface height based on climate change projections since no site-specific data are available. Overall, the vulnerability to climate change impacts of the coastal communities in Southern Catanduanes, particularly its capital town of Virac, is moderate implying that these coastal communities are somehow vulnerable to climate change impacts and immediate actions to mitigate these impacts are imperative. The use of the I-C-Sea Change Tool provided initial profile of the vulnerabilities of the coastal communities which can be used as guide for decision making and prioritization of areas and actions.

Cite this article:
Arcilla, R.V., & Arcilla, M.C.T. (2023). Climate change vulnerability assessment of the coastal communities in Southern Catanduanes Island, Philippines. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2), 49-59.

Documentation and Analysis of “Catanduanes Beloved:” Towards Building Catandungan Music Identity and Pedagogical Recommendations

Jose Z. Tria

The music of Catanduanes is a rich and diverse collection of borrowed and unique styles, reflecting the cultural and artistic experiences of its people. This study aims to document the official hymn of Catanduanes, "Catanduanes Beloved" or "Inang Catandungan," and analyze its rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic structure, providing unique musical characteristics. The lyrics, written by Macario Arcilla, and the melody, originating from old recollections of the Catandungan community, relate directly and indirectly to the geographical, historical, and philosophical function of the song. The findings of the study revealed that the song uses a combination of quarters, eighths, dotted eighths, and sixteenth notes, evoking the feel of a habanera or danza style in its rhythmic element. The melody ranges one and a half octaves and has a simple, child-like ambiance, combining the notes of the major scale with the occasional use of accidentals. The harmonic structure of the song evokes the major tonality, utilizing chords such as the tonic, sub-dominant, and dominant, with the added taste of a dominant seventh and raised tonic note. Although the music was influenced by the Spaniards, its message demonstrates aspects of Catandungan life. Pedagogical recommendations were identified, as this constitutes an avenue for music education and a vehicle for cultural continuity. Through the lens of "Catanduanes Beloved" or "Inang Catandungan," which is the official hymn of Catanduanes, this analysis helps to create a sense of identity for the Catandunganon, as well as for Bicolanos and Filipinos in general.

Cite this article:
Tria, J.Z. (2023). Documentation and analysis of “Catanduanes Beloved:” Towards building Catandungan music identity and pedagogical recommendations. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2), 60-71.

Volume 1 Number 1, 2023

Preliminary Pages

DSS for client satisfaction survey feedback for the University’s service delivery improvement

Belen M. Tapado, John Gregory M. Bola, Erickson T. Salazar, Zcel T. Tablizo

Globalization of products and services demands improvement of an organization’s performance. Along with product and service delivery improvement challenges, companies need to focus not only on meeting customer expectations but also on surpassing them. As such, valuing the opinions of customers, giving the best customer experience, and measuring customer satisfaction are deemed vital not just for the company’s survival but also for gaining a competitive edge in the wired communities. It is because of these premises that the Client Satisfaction Survey Feedback system was developed in this study. The results of the Client Satisfaction Survey from School Year 2015-2016 to School Year 2020-2021 were captured and keyed, interpretations were provided, and actions for the improvement of service delivery for each department in this university were recommended by the system through the employment of Decision Support System technic. The system developed was a browser-based application which means that software and technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript were used for the frontend development, MySQL and PHP for the backend, and Apache as the local server of the system. Software Testing Standards specified under ISO/IEC 9126 which are functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability were the parameters employed to evaluate the system. Technical experts and end users evaluated the system as “Excellent” which means that they believe that the developed system would be beneficial for use in the university.

Cite this article:
Tapado, B. M., Bola, J. G. M., Salazar, E. T., & Tablizo, Z. T. (2023). DSS for client satisfaction survey feedback for the University’s service delivery improvement. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 6–15.

Phenotypic characterization of Philippine native carabao (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis), its utilization, management practices, and problems met in Northeast Catanduanes, Philippines

Ramon F. Samonte

This study aimed to conserve the Philippine native carabao's adaptability with resilient traits to diseases and environmental elements focused on ensuring food security and income for small-scale carabao farmers. A total of sixty (60) carabaos were characterized which comprised of thirty (30) carabulls and thirty (30) caracows, and sixty (60) carabao farmers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire randomly. Assessing the qualitative characteristics of the samples, findings showed that carabaos in the Viga, Bagamanoc and Panganiban were predominantly native (78.33%) and upgraded (21.37%). These carabaos were found have 457.2 kg body weight, 182.4 cm heart girth,138.3cm shoulder height, 149.0 cm body length, 70.4 cm tail length, 44.3 cm length of head 25.3 cm width of the head and 138.1 cm height of hips, on the average. Thus, a standard error (SE) of more than 0.5 showed a close relationship between the variance and manifest inbreeding. Moreover, these carabaos were commonly used in land preparation and as source of food for human consumption (carabeef), singly or both, while rarely as source of milk. Recordkeeping (60%), tethering (90%), deworming (68.3%), vaccination (70%), provision of housing or shed (75%), and branding (58.3%) were found adopted by farmers interviewed. Likewise, five problems were met namely indiscriminate age of slaughtering, weak carabao dispersal program, diseases, lack of farmer contact with extension workers, and lack of pasture due to land conversion. Based on the findings of this study, introduction of purebred stock, adoption of improved modified management practices, more linkages with academic, and funding institutions, and a "Model Carabao Farmer" scheme to entice younger generation into carabao production are recommended.

Cite this article:
Samonte, R. F. (2023). Phenotypic characterization of Philippine native carabao (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis), its utilization, management practices, and problems met in Northeast Catanduanes, Philippines. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 16–25.

Rice farming in Catanduanes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nicca Aira A. Marquez, Fe M. Valledor

The COVID-19 pandemic greatly affected the agricultural food system in the Philippines and abroad. This study focused on describing the status of rice farming in Catanduanes before and during the pandemic in four aspects namely production, post-harvest activities, marketing, and government intervention, and determining the perceived immediate impact of the pandemic on rice farming in the province. One-hundred thirty (130) rice farmers from all 11 municipalities were considered as the respondents of the study, which covers the first and second cropping of 2019 and 2020. Respondents of this study were mostly male tenants cultivating an average size of 1.375 ha of land with less than PHP 5,000.00 monthly income, while 50% of them are members of farmers’ or irrigators’ associations. The results of the study described that rice production during the pandemic was not hampered due to the lockdown since farmers’ mobility was not restricted. However, production costs changed due to the increased labor and fertilizer costs. Post-harvest costs also increased due to the increase in rice milling and transportation rental. The price of well-milled rice per kg and the number of bags of well-milled rice sold by farmers also increased during the pandemic. On the other hand, the government intensified the provision of free fertilizer and seeds to address the increasing cost of farm inputs. Although the conduct of training and techno-demo were limited during the pandemic, ATI in collaboration with local authorities made a way to provide online techno-gabay programs to farmers. The higher cost of transportation is perceived to be the most influencing effect caused by Covid-19 that affects rice farming in Catanduanes. It was observed that members of the farmers’ associations are informed of the projects and programs of the Department of Agriculture and can acquire production input support for their farms. This study emphasizes the empirical role of community organizations in these times of crisis.

Cite this article:
Marquez, N. A. A., & Valledor, F. M. (2023). Rice farming in Catanduanes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 26–33.

Propayl at kakayahang pampananaliksik ng mga guro sa Senior High School, Dibisyon ng Catanduanes: Isang panimulang pagsipat tungo sa pagbuo ng mungkahing gawaing pang-ekstensyon

Jaime T. Amante Jr.

Hindi matatawaran ang ambag o benepisyong dulot ng pananaliksik sa lahat ng larangan. Sa edukasyon, ang pananaliksik ang itinuturing na pundasyon ng mga bagong kaalamang inilalapat sa pagtuturo, pagsasagawa ng ekstensyon at produksiyon. Bunga ng patuloy na panawagan ng DepEd sa kaguruan na makiisa at makilahok sa gawaing pananaliksik, isinagawa ang pag-aaral na ito. Layunin nitong alamin ang estado at kakayahang pampananaliksik ng mga gurong nagtuturo ng kursong may kaugnayan sa pananaliksik sa antas senior high. Ang mga natuklasang datos ang ginawang batayan ng pagbuo ng mungkahing pang-ekstensyon. Sa pamamagitan nito, matutulungan silang matugunan ang mga suliraning kinakaharap sa gawaing pananaliksik. Natuklasan sa ginawang pag-aaral na katamtaman ang antas ng kanilang kakayahang pampananaliksik. Isang serye ng palihan sa pananaliksik ang mungkahing gawaing pang-ekstensyon na nabuo kaugnay ng pag-aaral na ito.

Cite this article:
Amante Jr., J. T. (2023). Propayl at kakayahang pampananaliksik ng mga guro sa Senior High School, Dibisyon ng Catanduanes: Isang panimulang pagsipat tungo sa pagbuo ng mungkahing gawaing pang-ekstensyon. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 34–52.

Pananalinghaga sa mga kontemporanyong tulang Bikolnon tuon sa mga paskil na tigsik ni Engr. Abdon B. Balde Jr.

Jovert R. Balunsay, Jaime T. Amante Jr.

Ang pagtitigsik ay isa sa mga tradisyonal na panitikan ng mga Bikolano. Mayaman ito sa mga aspektong kultural dahil masasalamin dito ang mga kaugalian at paniniwala ng mga Bikolano. Sa papel na ito, mabusising sinuri ng mga mananaliksik ang 267 paskil na tigsik ni Engr. Abdon B. Balde Jr. at hinango sa mga ito ang samot-saring matatalinghagang pahayag kagaya ng mga idyoma at tayutay. Nagbigay din ng pagpapakahulugan ang mga mananaliksik sa mga nahangong matatalinghagang pahayag. Bunga nito, ang mga mananaliksik ay nakabuo ng kongklusyong, ang mga tigsik ni Balde ay mabisang hanguan ng mga matatalinghagang pahayag at isa sa mga paraan upang mapalaganap ang kasiningan sa ganitong uri at anyo ng pagtula.

Cite this article:
Balunsay, J. R., & Amante Jr., J. T. (2023). Pananalinghaga sa mga kontemporanyong tulang Bikolnon tuon sa mga paskil na tigsik ni Engr. Abdon B. Balde Jr. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 53–81.

Self-efficacy and academic performance of Intermediate Pupils at CatSU Laboratory Schools under the blended learning approach

Sarah Jane G. Triumfante

This study sought to determine the level of self-efficacy and academic performance of intermediate pupils at the Catanduanes State Uuniversity Laboratory Schools under blended learning approach. It employed the descriptive-correlational method of research, utilizing the questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. General weighted average for the previous school year was used to determine the academic performance of the pupils. There were 92 intermediate pupils involved in the study. The study revealed that (1) the majority of the respondents are female, 28 are in Grade 4, and 32 are in Grades 5 and 6, (2) the academic performance of the pupils is very satisfactory, (3) the level of self-efficacy of the pupils is generally high, (4) there is a moderate relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance of the pupils, and (5) there is no significant difference in self-efficacy and the academic performance among the pupils in terms of sex and grade level. The study recommended that (1) faculty members should embed to the learners the strategy instruction in each areas of learning, (2) faculty members should also set high and clear expectations for a quality work, (3) parents must create at home an atmosphere where their children would feel that they are supported, and (4) the school administration can provide e-classrooms, interactive classrooms, and a variety of learning resources that will cater holistic development and develop full potentials among learners.

Cite this article:
Triumfante, S. J. G. (2023). Self-efficacy and academic performance of Intermediate Pupils at CatSU Laboratory Schools under the blended learning approach. Uswag: Philippine Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 82–94.

Uswag Journal is dedicated to publishing research and undergoes a rigorous peer-review process. The scope of the journal includes but is not limited to the following topics:

  • • Island-based Researches
  • • Mathematics, Physical, Biological and Environmental Sciences
  • • Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Agribusiness
  • • Social Sciences and Humanities
  • • Language, Literature and Communication Arts
  • • Information and Communications Technology
  • • Health and Nutrition
  • • Engineering, Energy and Industrial Technology
  • • Business, Accountancy and Management
  • • Education
  • • Medicine
  • • Law
  • • Policy Studies

Prior to submitting the manuscripts (research articles, reviews and commentaries), authors need to thoroughly review the policies and guidelines of the journal and ensure that their publishable articles are prepared in accordance with the specified guidelines and procedures.

All manuscripts must be individually submitted through the official e-mail address of Catanduanes State University Research and Development Services ( with the subject: Name of Researchers_Short Title of Manuscript_For Publication Uswag Journal.

It is necessary to use clear and concise English narration in the manuscript. If the manuscript contains multiple linguistic errors that hinder comprehension, the authors will be requested to revise and edit their work. While either British or American spelling may be utilized, it must be consistently applied throughout the text. Furthermore, any non-standard abbreviations must be explicitly defined upon their first mention. Studies using the Filipino language is also accepted for as long as the authors follow the correct grammar, style and syntax of the Filipino language.

The following files are required for all submissions:

Title page: This page includes the names, affiliations, email addresses, and OrcIDs of all authors.

Manuscript Body: This file constitutes the main body of the manuscript, and it should not contain any information that may identify the authors of this manuscript. The length of the blinded text should be between 4500 and 9500 words.

Cover Letter: In your cover letter, it is important to state why your work is an ideal fit for the journal and how it will captivate the journal's readers.

Authors should use the provided template files (for the title page and the blinded text) in Microsoft Word format and adhere to the guidelines presented within these templates while preparing their submissions (see attached publication template and letter).

If the manuscript requires revisions for possible publication, the authors are expected to submit a revised version along with their responses to the comments provided by the editors and reviewers.

The submission of manuscripts, accompanying documents, revisions, and final galley proofs of accepted manuscripts is managed through e-mail ( . Authors are expected to provide timely responses throughout all stages of the process. It is important to note that in certain instances, communications sent through the system may be filtered into spam folders by email servers. It is therefore the responsibility of the authors to routinely monitor their spam folders for potential status updates and additional requests.

The Catanduanes State University-Research and Development Services is committed to a prompt and equitable decision-making process following an in-depth and constructive feedback editorial review. As a result, editors have complete authority over the articles selected for publication in the journal. It is important to note that all articles published in the journal undergo strict peer-review evaluations.

The following standards must be complied by all manuscript submissions:
  • Manuscript must be aligned to the journal’s aims and scope.
  • Manuscript must be original.
  • Manuscript must follow publication ethics and author guidelines.
  • Manuscript must exhibit good use of English and/or Filipino.
The editorial office and editor-in-chief initially review all submitted manuscripts to ensure that they comply with the requirements stated above. If the manuscript fails to meet these requirements, the manuscripts shall be returned to the authors for corrections or rejected without further consideration.

Manuscripts that pass the initial screening are then assigned to the journal's Editor-in-chief, who is responsible for overseeing the remainder of the editorial process. The Editor-in-chief invites both internal and external peer reviewers to evaluate the originality and quality of the submission. Additionally, all reviewers should also adhere to the reviewer guidelines below. The editor makes the final editorial acceptance decision based on the reports of at least two expert reviewers (internal and external). In the event of a conflict of interest, alternative peer reviewers are assigned.

If the authors are dissatisfied with the editorial process (outcomes and decision), they may submit a comprehensive explanation of their complaints or appeals to All complaints and appeals shall be scrutinized in accordance with the journal's guidelines.

The reviewers, both internal and external, responsible for evaluating manuscripts submitted to this journal must adhere to the following guidelines:

  1. Reviewers must confirm that they have no potential conflicts of interest with the submitted manuscript. If they suspect any such competing interests, they must immediately inform the editors and decline the invitation.
  2. Reviewers should ensure that the manuscript is aligned with the journal's aims and scope.
  3. Reviewers should verify that the submitted manuscript complies with the author submission guidelines and ethical principles.
  4. Reviewers should evaluate the originality, significance, and quality of the submission. This includes examining the prescribed parts of the manuscript.
  5. Reviewers should adopt an unbiased, constructive, clear, and positive approach when preparing their evaluation reports.

Uswag Journal is committed to adhere to the University Publication Ethics (UPE) policies – request for office order or REC may suffice.

For Authors
Originality: Authors must submit original manuscripts that have not been published before and are not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. Authors must also declare any potential conflicts of interest.

Supporting documents: Authors must submit all necessary supporting documents, including informed consent and ethics committee approval if the study involves live subjects or the use of hazardous chemicals.

Cooperation with editors: Authors are expected to fully cooperate with the journal editors by promptly responding to their requests, including providing supporting documents (e.g., data) used in the study.

Authorship: The list of authors should only include those who have made significant contributions to the manuscript and have approved and take full responsibility for the findings, discussions, and conclusions presented in the final version of the manuscript. Contributions of others who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be acknowledged in the acknowledgement section.

Transparency: Authors are encouraged to provide a statement of contributions, as well as institutional email addresses and ORCID, to enhance transparency. However, in exceptional circumstances, changes to the author list may be made during the revision process, provided that all co-authors consent and there is a proper justification. Such changes are subject to approval by the editorial team. Once the article is accepted for publication, no modifications to the author list will be permitted.

Proper citation: Proper acknowledgment must be given to works of others through correct in-text citation and referencing.

Copyrighted material: Authors must obtain formal permission from the copyright owners to use/reproduce any copyrighted material included in their manuscript. The editorial team and the publisher assume that the authors have obtained all necessary permissions before submitting their manuscript and cannot be held liable if proven otherwise.

For Reviewers
Reviewers should consider the following:

  1. Check for potential conflict of interest and inform the editors if there is any.
  2. Evaluate the manuscript's alignment with the journal's aims and scope.
  3. Check the compliance of the submission with author submission guidelines and ethical principles.
  4. Assess the originality, significance, and quality of the submission, including the introduction, methodology, data, results, and discussion.
  5. Provide constructive, clear, and unbiased feedback to the editors.
  6. Keep the manuscript and any related documents confidential and not use it for their personal gain.
  7. Submit their review report within the given timeframe.
Reviewers are an essential part of the peer review process, and their feedback helps improve the quality of the manuscript and ensure its academic integrity.

For Editors
Journal editors have several responsibilities which include communicating with internal and external reviewers for professional guidance, managing the double-blind editorial peer review process, ensuring the submission is kept strictly confidential, addressing any suspected unethical behavior, and making unbiased publication decisions based on the relevance, originality, significance, and quality of the submissions. Editorial decisions should not be influenced by the ethnicity, gender, or religion of the authors. Editors are also responsible for ensuring that all published research materials comply with accepted ethical guidelines. In cases where an editor submits a manuscript, it must be handled by other editors who have no conflict of interest.

For the Publisher
The University as a publisher is responsible for providing the necessary resources and tools for the journal's publication activities both offline and online, ensuring the published articles are accessible and disseminated. However, the publisher does not interfere with the editorial processes and decisions. The University encourages authors, editors, and reviewers to adhere to the publication standards set by the REC.

The journal has a zero-tolerance policy towards academic misconduct, including plagiarism, simultaneous submission, duplicate publication, self-plagiarism, data fabrication, falsification, citation manipulation, salami slicing, and ghost authorship. All submitted manuscripts are subjected to Turnitin, a plagiarism detection software requiring Similarity Index Threshold of no more than 10%. In case of any suspected misconduct, the publisher and journal editors cooperate closely and take necessary actions to settle the issues, even if it is discovered years after publication.

Correctios, errata or corrigenda are used to correct minor errors or inaccuracies in published articles, while retractions are used to withdraw or remove articles from the published record due to serious issues such as academic misconduct or research integrity violations. Retractions shall be decided by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) and must be made in a transparent and clear manner, with appropriate notices and explanations provided to journal’s reader.

Anyone who is dissatisfied with the quality of the publication processes or the journal content can send a detailed description of the case to the REC at All concerns will be thoroughly investigated according to REC.

To ensure impartiality in the review process, this journal adopts a double-blind peer review procedure, both internally and/or externally. This means that the reviewer and the author remain anonymous throughout the process. In order to protect the identity of the authors, the main body of the submitted manuscript is anonymized. Additionally, the authors need to ensure that their own works are blinded in the references and in-text citations.

Once a manuscript passes the initial screening, editors will then invite expert reviewers (internal and/or external) to evaluate the manuscript's originality and quality. Peer review is a crucial process that ensures the academic work is of the highest possible quality by providing constructive feedback to the authors. It also assists the editors in determining whether the work is acceptable for publication in the journal. As a principle, all manuscripts are reviewed by at least two expert reviewers before editors make their decisions.

Maintaining ethical principles is crucial for editors, reviewers, and authors to ensure an effective peer review process. Reviewers must promptly notify editors and decline the invitation if they have a competing interest, such as a financial relationship, intellectual belief, personal relationship, or competition, that may influence their professional judgment and objectivity in the evaluation. Additionally, reviewers must never disclose any content of the manuscript, in part or in full, to anyone else. It is their responsibility to submit their review reports in a clear and timely manner.

The initial round of the double-blind peer-review process is expected to be completed within one month after submission. However, authors should be aware that if revisions are necessary, the processing time may be longer.

At the end of the editorial peer-review process, editors determine whether to accept or reject the manuscript for publishing in the journal based on their own evaluation and review reports. Final decisions are then communicated to the corresponding authors through a formal letter or e-mail.

Accepted manuscripts: Once a manuscript is accepted for publication, it undergoes further processing and is handed over to the R&DS. There are no publication fees associated with this journal. The R&DS prepares an initial version of the galley proof (GP), which is sent to the authors for possible corrections. Minor changes may be made during formatting, such as resizing images and fonts to fit the journal template. The authors may be asked to provide higher resolution versions of figures and images. The authors can submit their corrections or approve the current version of the GP. If additional corrections are required, a new version of the GP will be prepared and sent to the authors. Once the authors and editors have accepted the GP, the article will be scheduled for publication in a journal issue. The volume, issue, article, and DOI (to be applied later) will be included into the full text of the article, and the final version will be prepared for publication. After publication, the authors will receive an acknowledgement letter or email, and the article will be made available either online or via hard copy.

Rejected manuscripts: For rejected manuscripts, authors may receive suggestions for alternative journals, although acceptance is not guaranteed. If authors disagree with the editorial decision, they can file a formal appeal by sending an email to the R&DS.

The journal’s publication fee is 100% free.

Uswag Journal is open access.

All published articles can be accessed through official website of Catanduanes State University. Everyone will have free and immediate access to the full-texts of published content without any subscription.

Hence, the authors of this journal will enjoy wide audience and higher impact and citation opportunities.

The authors of published scholarly work in this journal maintain the copyright and have complete control over their work. They are not required to transfer their copyright to the publisher. This policy enables the scientific community to access the content freely and immediately after its publication.

This journal is open access. It allows everyone to store and distribute the published articles in any medium. The journal also encourages authors to self-archive their articles in their own web sites, in their institutional web sites, and in public repositories.

Additionally, the archives of the journal is stored in the CatSU’s BIRRO (Bibliographical Institutional Repository of Researches).

Executive Editors: Dr. Patrick Alain T. Azanza
Dr. Lily P. Custodio
Dr. Ramon Felipe A. Sarmiento
Dr. Kristian Q. Aldea
Editor-in-chief Dr. Jose Z. Tria
Managing Editor: Mr. Eduardo S. Villar
Technical Editors: Mr. Giles Martin S. Camacho
Ms. Sharmaine C. Biñas
Ms. Robelle M. Tapado
Associate Editors: Prof. Ma. Emmie T. Delluza
Dr. Jovert R. Balunsay
Dr. Kristian Q. Aldea
Dr. John Joseph M. Camu
Dr. Joseph G. Zafe
Dr. Rosana S. Abundo
Prof. Glenn Paul R. Lopez
Dr. Lily P. Custodio
Prof. Ma. Sofia S. Llaguno

Instructions: The Uswag Journal is committed to high academic standards, treating publication as a collaborative efforts among authors, reviewers and editors. The goal of the peer review process is to enhance the academic and scientific quality of the submissions. Reviewers will work collaboratively with the authors to ensure integrity of the manuscript.

Constructive criticism is an essential part of this collaborative effort and as such shall be given and taken in a professional manner. Reviewers are expected to return the result of the review within two weeks (14 days), unless otherwise specified by the editor.

Thank you very much for your valuable contribution.